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[外媒编译] 【时代周刊 20161117】一百张最有影响力的照片 之一

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发表于 2016-11-28 08:47 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

【中文标题】一百张最有影响力的照片 之一
【原文标题】Most Influential Photos
【登载媒体】
时代周刊
【原文作者】Ben Goldberger
【原文链接】http://100photos.time.com/photos/harold-edgerton-milk-drop



乐格斯窗外的景色
约瑟夫•尼塞福尔•涅普斯
约1826年


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天才的智慧与好奇的心理结合,制作出世界上已知的第一张照片。所以恰当地说,照片的制作人应该是个发明家,不是个艺术家。在19世纪20年代,约瑟夫•尼塞福尔•涅普斯对平板印刷术颇为着迷,画在石头上的图像可以用油墨板复制。在寻找其它制作图像方法的过程中,涅普斯搞出了一个叫做暗箱的东西,它可以捕捉并记录被阳光所照亮的景色,他把这个东西架设在法国东部他的工作室的窗前。光线投射在一个经过处理的锡板上,几个小时之后,出现了一个粗糙的建筑物和房顶的景色。结果就是第一张永久性的照片。

我们可以毫不夸张地说,涅普斯的成就为摄影的发展打下了基础。之后他与艺术家路易斯•达盖尔合作,后者的银板照相法标志着摄影技术的下一个里程碑。

圣殿大道
路易斯•达盖尔
1839年


02.jpg

1839年的一个春天,巴黎圣殿大道上的一个擦鞋匠不会想到他创造了历史。但是路易斯•达盖尔突破性地获取了这个人和一位顾客的图片,成为了目前已知世界上第一个捕捉到人物的摄影作品。在达盖尔之前,人们只会出现了绘画作品上。当达盖尔把他的镜头对准巴黎的街道,让一个覆盖着银粉的铜版曝光几分钟,并且用化学药剂把图像固定下来之后,历史发生了改变。(也有其他人进入了镜头,但是他们没有停留太长时间,因此影像没有被捕捉到。)这就是第一张镜像照片。

银板照相法与早期的摄影技术不同之处在于,它的图像更加清晰,可以永久保存。尽管这种方法最后被新技术所取代——银板照相法不能复制,不能印刷在纸面上——但是达盖尔做了大量的工作来推广这种新的摄影媒介。

死亡阴影山谷
罗杰•芬顿
1855年


03.jpg

我们对克里米亚战争知之甚少——英国、法国、土耳其和和撒丁岛皮德蒙特对阵俄罗斯持续了三年的战争,但是相关的报道彻底改变了我们对战争的认知。在那之前,民众对战争的了解主要来源于英雄般的绘画和文学作品。但是当英国摄影师罗杰•芬顿在1855年来到黑海这个遥远的半岛之后,他拍摄的战争场景开启了战争摄影的传统。360张有关军营生活和士兵操作迫击炮的照片或许并没有我们常见的那种血腥场景,但是芬顿的作品让我们看到,这种新的艺术媒介完全可以媲美绘画艺术。尤其是在“死亡阴影山谷”这张照片上,一条被炮弹轰炸后的山谷,距离阿佛烈•丁尼生在《轻骑兵进击》中使之不朽的战争地点不远。恐怖的景色,让很多人想起了诗中当军队“冲进死亡山谷”时,“炮弹落在他们右边/炮弹落在他们左边/炮弹落在他们前面”的诗句。同时人们还看到,一场无意义的屠杀之后,了无生气的荒凉场景。学者们长期以来认为这是芬顿拍摄的唯一一张山谷照片,但是1981年出现了另外一张弹坑没有那么多的照片,人们争论究竟哪一张在前。最终的结论是后发现的照片在前,说明芬顿有可能是最早的新闻摄影师。

亚伯拉罕•林肯
马修•布雷迪
1860年


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当亚伯拉罕•林肯在1860年2月来到纽约在库伯联盟学院发表讲话时,他还是一个胸怀大志、无人知晓的伊利诺伊州众议员。演讲自然要精彩,但林肯知道形象同样重要。在演讲之前,他来到马修•B•布雷迪的布雷迪摄影室。这位人像摄影室拍摄过很多名人的作品,包括埃德加•爱伦•坡和詹姆斯•费尼莫尔•库柏,他还打算用照片来记录即将来临的内战。同时,他对演讲技巧也略通一二。他让这个身材修长的分裂分子摆成政治家的造型,收紧衬衫领子来掩饰他的长脖子,还修改底片让他的面容更加自然。按下快门的一瞬间,布雷迪让人们不再谈论林肯自己曾经说过“有关我难看体形的谣言……给了我一副人类的面孔和高贵的举止”。林肯在内战开始之前展示出这种年轻的形象,等于在脸上盖上了白宫办公室的印章,布雷迪把他塑造成战前浮躁年代中一个冷静的总统宝座竞争者。之后,林肯在1500名共和党听众前的演讲大获成功,布雷迪的照片很快出现在《哈珀周刊》等出版物上,以及无数的海报和徽章上,成为了早期竞选宣传中最强大的图片武器。随着照片的传播,林肯顺利地进入白宫,最终让国家统一,结束了奴隶制。林肯后来坦承:“布雷迪和库伯联盟讲话让我成为了美国总统。”

教堂岩,约塞米蒂
卡雷顿•沃特金斯
1861年


05.jpg

早在安塞尔•亚当斯看到约塞米蒂嶙峋怪石的几十年前,卡雷顿•沃特金斯就用骡队驼着巨大的干板照相机、三脚架和帐篷暗房,深入加利福尼亚山谷的不毛之地。旅行结束之后,沃特金斯拍摄了130张底片,首次印刷出约塞米蒂高耸的山峰、冰川地质和广袤的地带照片。这些照片,包括沃特金斯近距离拍摄教堂岩的照片,触动了这个国家的决策者们。加利福尼亚州参议院约翰•科内斯手里有一些照片,他积极推动这项工作。1864年6月30日,亚伯拉罕•林肯总统签署了约塞米蒂授权法案,为国家公园制度奠定了基础。如今,这项制度保护着8400万倾的土地。

安提塔姆的死者
亚历山大•加德纳
1862年


06.jpg

马里兰州安提塔姆,被鲜血浸透的沙珀斯堡战场,美国士兵在一天里的死亡人数超过了战争开始以来的任何一天。联邦军士兵的回忆是“成堆的尸体……让人心悸”。出生于苏格兰的摄影师亚历山大•加德纳在1862年9月17日大屠杀的第二天来到当地。他架起立体湿板照相机,拍摄了数十张郊外散布死者尸体的照片。还拍摄了死亡的士兵、葬礼的人群和壕沟状的墓坑。加德纳的老板是马修•布雷迪,当他回到纽约之后,布雷斯举办了一次展览。观众入口处悬挂一个简单的标题“安提塔姆的死者”,但是人们看到的景象并不简单。上流社会第一次看到了战争伤亡的现场记录,加德纳的照片异常清晰,人们甚至可以识别出死者的面目。死亡不加掩饰,似乎原本遥远的战争突然之间出现在眼前。加德纳让美国人看到了手足相残的残忍,到1865年,已经有60万人死亡。这篇片神圣的土地面对的不是外来者,而是儿子、兄弟、父亲、表兄和朋友。加德纳的安提塔姆照片成为了影响深远的遗产,为今后所有的战争报道设立了痛苦的视觉标准。

奔跑的马
艾德沃德•迈布里奇
1878年


07.jpg

当一匹马行走或者奔跑的时候,它是否会四脚离地?摄影室艾德沃德•迈布里奇在1878年试图回答这个问题。铁路大亨、前加利福尼亚州长奇利兰•斯坦福认为马会四脚离地,他任命迈布里奇来证明这一点。迈布里奇发明了一种拍摄照片的方法,让曝光时间只有若干分之一秒。在记者和旁观人员的帮助下,他们在斯坦福庄园的马道上安置了12台照相机。

当一匹马跑过来,踏过连接照相机的细线而触发快门,连续拍摄了12张照片。迈布里奇在现场把照片冲洗出来,发现马在奔跑中的确有那么一个瞬间彻底腾空。肉眼无法捕捉到这个瞬间,但是借助摄影技术,结果很明显。这标志着摄影的一个新用途,也就是凭借技术揭露事实。迈布里奇的运动静止摄影技巧是一种早期的动画形式,它为十年后出现的动态摄影产业铺平了道路。

强盗窝,桑树街
雅各•里斯
约1888年


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19世纪末期的纽约是吸引全世界移民的磁石,但是大部分人发现这里的街道并不是黄金铺成的,而是充满了难以忍受的污秽。上层社会对此视而不见,勇敢的记者,丹麦出生的雅各•里斯记录下昌盛时代下的耻辱。里斯深入这个城市最危险的街区,用耀眼的镁粉闪光灯捕捉到遍地的犯罪行为、极度的贫穷和令人发指的拥挤。其中最著名的照片是里斯拍摄的纽约东区街头黑帮,他们的威胁笼罩了每一个街角。这些作品是他的揭露性书籍《另一半人怎样生活》的主要素材,这本书迫使美国人面对他们长久以来忽视的现实,也激发了一些改革人士采取行动。年轻的纽约政客西奥多•罗斯福写信给他,说:“我读过了你的书,我要着手解决。”里斯的作品是促成纽约州在1901年通过住房法案的关键所在,这项法案大大改善了穷人的居住环境。他的这种只身深入险境、直接面对问题的风格,奠定了纪录片和揭露性记者报道的基础。

威廉•伦琴夫人的手
威廉•康拉德•伦琴
1895年


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我们无从了解安娜•博莎•伦琴一生中拍摄过多少张照片,其中很多肯定已经遗失在历史中。但是其中一张保留了下来,是她的手,更准确地说,是她的手骨——他的丈夫威廉在1895年用第一台医疗X光机拍摄的照片。威廉连续在实验室中工作了几个星期,测试阴极管释放出的不同频率的电磁能量。他发现,其中一些电磁能似乎可以穿透固体,在相纸上曝光。他利用这种奇怪的射线——他戏称为“X射线”——拍摄出各种物体的内部投影。最后,他拍摄了活体对象。安娜的手的照片引起了轰动,X射线的发现为威廉在1901年赢得了第一个诺贝尔物理学奖。他的突破很快被全世界广泛应用,隐藏在外表之内的疾病和伤痛诊断,得到了革命性的发展。但是,安娜不愿再拍摄X光照片。当她第一次看到手骨的照片时说:“我看到了自己死去的样子。”但是对其他无数人来说,这意味着生命。

月光:池塘
爱德华•史泰钦
1904年


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爱德华•史泰钦充满虚幻的作品是照片还是绘画?答案是两者都是,而这恰恰是他的目的。史泰钦在纽约马马罗内克的森林中拍摄了一张照片,后期手工在黑白照片中添加了蓝色,甚至还添加了一个隐约发光的月亮。这两种手法的结合就是画意摄影主义的目标,在20世纪初,很多专业摄影师都使用这样的手法,把他们的作品与业余摄影者用刚出现的手持相机拍摄的照片区别开来。但是没有一张照片具有像“月光”那样的开创性。

在拍摄“月光”的一年之前,史泰钦在一篇文章中主张,后期修改照片与决定何时何地按下快门没有区别。他说,摄影师有权决定在必要时改变他们的照片的真实内容。尽管史泰钦最终放弃了画意摄影主义,但是这场运动的影响力体现在每一个试图制作,而不仅仅是拍摄一张照片的摄影师身上。“月光”依然在发挥着它的影响力。在史泰钦制作这张照片的一个世纪之后,一个复制品以将近300万美元的价格卖出。



原文:

View from the Window at Le Gras
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
circa 1826

It took a unique combination of ingenuity and curiosity to produce the first known photograph, so it’s fitting that the man who made it was an inventor and not an artist. In the 1820s, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce had become fascinated with the printing method of lithography, in which images drawn on stone could be reproduced using oil-based ink. Searching for other ways to produce images, Niépce set up a device called a camera obscura, which captured and projected scenes illuminated by sunlight, and trained it on the view outside his studio window in eastern France. The scene was cast on a treated pewter plate that, after many hours, retained a crude copy of the buildings and rooftops outside. The result was the first known permanent photograph.

It is no overstatement to say that Niépce’s achievement laid the groundwork for the development of photography. Later, he worked with artist Louis Daguerre, whose sharper daguerreotype images marked photography’s next major advancement.

Boulevard du Temple
Louis Daguerre
1839

The shoe shiner working on Paris’ Boulevard du Temple one spring day in 1839 had no idea he would make his­tory. But Louis Daguerre’s groundbreaking image of the man and a customer is the first known instance of human beings captured in a photograph. Before Daguerre, people had only been represented in artworks. That changed when Daguerre fixed his lens on a Paris street and then exposed a silver-plated sheet of copper for several minutes (though others came into the frame, they did not stay long enough to be captured), developed and fixed the image using chemicals. The result was the first mirror-image photograph.

Unlike earlier efforts, daguerreotypes were sharp and permanent. And though they were eventually outpaced by newer innovations—daguerreotypes were not reproducible, nor could they be printed on paper—Daguerre did more than perhaps anyone else to show the vast potential of the new medium of photography.

The Valley of the Shadow of Death
Roger Fenton
1855

While little is remembered of the Crimean War—that nearly three-year conflict that pitted England, France, Turkey and Sardinia-Piedmont against Russia—coverage of it radically changed the way we view war. Until then, the general public learned of battles through heroic paintings and illustrations. But after the British photographer Roger Fenton landed in 1855 on that far-off peninsula on the Black Sea, he sent back revelatory views of the conflict that firmly established the tradition of war photography. Those 360 photos of camp life and men manning mortar batteries may lack the visceral brutality we have since become accustomed to, yet Fenton’s work showed that this new artistic medium could rival the fine arts. This is especially clear in The Valley of the Shadow of Death, which shows a cannonball-strewn gully not far from the spot immortalized in Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s “The Charge of the Light Brigade.” That haunting image, which for many evokes the poem’s “Cannon to right of them,/ Cannon to left of them,/ Cannon in front of them” as the troops race “into the valley of Death,” also revealed to the general public the reality of the lifeless desolation left in the wake of senseless slaughter. Scholars long believed that this was Fenton’s only image of the valley. But a second version with fewer of the scattered projectiles turned up in 1981, fueling a fierce debate over which came first. That the more recently discovered picture is thought to be the first indicates that Fenton may have been one of the earliest to stage a news photograph.

Abraham Lincoln
Mathew Brady
1860

Abraham Lincoln was a little-known one-term Illinois Congressman with national aspirations when he arrived in New York City in February 1860 to speak at the Cooper Union. The speech had to be perfect, but Lincoln also knew the importance of image. Before taking to the podium, he stopped at the Broadway photography studio of Mathew B. Brady. The portraitist, who had photographed everyone from Edgar ­Allan Poe to James Fenimore Cooper and would chronicle the coming Civil War, knew a thing or two about presentation. He set the gangly rail splitter in a statesmanlike pose, tightened his shirt collar to hide his long neck and retouched the image to improve his looks. In a click of a shutter, Brady dispelled talk of what Lincoln said were “rumors of my long ungainly figure … making me into a man of human aspect and dignified bearing.” By capturing Lincoln’s youthful features before the ravages of the Civil War would etch his face with the strains of the Oval Office, Brady presented him as a calm contender in the fractious antebellum era. Lincoln’s subsequent talk before a largely Republican audience of 1,500 was a resounding success, and Brady’s picture soon appeared in publications like Harper’s Weekly and on cartes de visite and election posters and buttons, making it the most powerful early instance of a photo used as campaign propaganda. As the portrait spread, it propelled Lincoln from the edge of greatness to the White House, where he preserved the Union and ended slavery. As Lincoln later admitted, “Brady and the Cooper Union speech made me President of the United States.”  

Cathedral Rock, Yosemite
Carleton Watkins
1861

Decades before Ansel Adams ever saw Yosemite’s jagged peaks, Carleton Watkins packed his mammoth plate camera, tripods and a makeshift tent darkroom on mules and ventured into the remote California valley. At the journey’s end, Watkins had 130 negatives that offered the first printed images of Yosemite’s towering masses, glacial geology and jaw-dropping expanse. The images, including Watkins’ intimate view of Cathedral Rock, floored the growing nation’s power brokers. John Conness, a U.S. Senator from California, owned a set of the prints and became an evangelist for the work. On June 30, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln signed into law the Yosemite Grant Act, laying the foundation for the National Park System, which now protects some 84 million acres of land.

The Dead of Antietam
Alexander Gardner
1862

It was at Antietam, the blood-churning battle in Sharpsburg, Md., where more Americans died in a single day than ever had before, that one Union soldier recalled how “the piles of dead ... were frightful.” The Scottish-born photographer Alexander Gardner arrived there two days after the September 17, 1862, slaughter. He set up his stereo wet-plate camera and started taking dozens of images of the body-strewn country­side, documenting fallen soldiers, burial crews and trench graves. Gardner worked for Mathew Brady, and when he returned to New York City his employer arranged an exhibition of the work. Visitors were greeted with a plain sign reading “The Dead of Antietam.” But what they saw was anything but simple. Genteel society came upon what are believed to be the first recorded images of war casualties. Gardner’s photographs are so sharp that people could make out ­faces. The death was unfiltered, and a war that had seemed remote suddenly became harrowingly immediate. Gardner helped make Americans realize the significance of the fratricide that by 1865 would take more than 600,000 lives. For in the hallowed fields fell not faceless strangers but sons, brothers, fathers, cousins and friends. And Gardner’s images of Antietam created a lasting legacy by establishing a painfully potent visual precedent for the way all wars have since been covered.

The Horse in Motion
Eadweard Muybridge
1878

When a horse trots or gallops, does it ever become fully airborne? This was the question photographer Eadweard Muybridge set out to answer in 1878. Railroad tycoon and former California governor Leland Stanford was convinced the answer was yes and commissioned Muybridge to provide proof. Muybridge developed a way to take photos with an exposure lasting a fraction of a second and, with reporters as witnesses, arranged 12 cameras along a track on Stanford’s estate.

As a horse sped by, it tripped wires connected to the cameras, which took 12 photos in rapid succession. Muybridge developed the images on site and, in the frames, revealed that a horse is completely aloft with its hooves tucked underneath it for a brief moment during a stride. The revelation, imperceptible to the naked eye but apparent through photography, marked a new purpose for the medium. It could capture truth through technology. Muybridge’s stop-motion technique was an early form of animation that helped pave the way for the motion-picture industry, born a short decade later.

Bandit's Roost, 59½ Mulberry Street
Jacob Riis
circa 1888

Late 19th-century New York City was a magnet for the world’s immigrants, and the vast majority of them found not streets paved with gold but nearly subhuman squalor. While polite society turned a blind eye, brave reporters like the Danish-born Jacob Riis documented this shame of the Gilded Age. Riis did this by venturing into the city’s most ominous neighborhoods with his blinding magnesium flash powder lights, capturing the casual crime, grinding poverty and frightful overcrowding. Most famous of these was Riis’ image of a Lower East Side street gang, which conveys the danger that lurked around every bend. Such work became the basis of his revelatory book How the Other Half Lives, which forced Americans to confront what they had long ignored and galvanized reformers like the young New York politician Theodore Roosevelt, who wrote to the photographer, “I have read your book, and I have come to help.” Riis’ work was instrumental in bringing about New York State’s landmark Tenement House Act of 1901, which improved conditions for the poor. And his crusading approach and direct, confrontational style ushered in the age of documentary and muckraking photojournalism.

The Hand of Mrs. Wilhelm Röntgen
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
1895

There’s no way of knowing how many pictures were taken of Anna Bertha Röntgen, and most are surely lost to history. But one of them isn’t: it is of her hand—more precisely, the bones in her hand—an image captured by her husband Wilhelm when he took the first medical x-ray in 1895. Wilhelm had spent weeks working in his lab, experimenting with a cathode tube that emitted different frequencies of electromagnetic energy. Some, he noticed, appeared to penetrate solid objects and expose sheets of photographic paper. He used the strange rays, which he aptly dubbed x-rays, to create shadowy images of the inside of various inanimate objects and then, finally, one very animate one. The picture of Anna’s hand created a sensation, and the discovery of x-rays won Wilhelm the first Nobel Prize ever granted for physics in 1901. His breakthrough quickly went into use around the world, revolutionizing the diagnosis and treatment of injuries and illnesses that had always been hidden from sight. Anna, however, was never taken with the picture. “I have seen my death,” she said when she first glimpsed it. For many millions of other people, it has meant life.

Moonlight: The Pond
Edward Steichen
1904

Is Edward Steichen’s ethereal image a photograph or a painting? It’s both, and that was exactly his point. Steichen photographed the wooded scene in ­Mamaroneck, N.Y., hand-colored the black-and-white prints with blue tones and may have even added the glowing moon. The blurring of two mediums was the aim of Pictorialism, which was embraced by professional photographers at the turn of the 20th century as a way to differentiate their work from amateur snapshots taken with newly available handheld cameras. And no single image was more formative than Moonlight.

The year before he created Moonlight, Steichen wrote an essay arguing that altering photos was no different than choosing when and where to click the shutter. Photographers, he said, always have a perspective that necessarily distorts the authenticity of their images. Although Steichen eventually abandoned Pictorialism, the movement’s influence can be seen in every photographer who seeks to create scenes, not merely capture them. Moonlight, too, continues to resonate. A century after Steichen made the image, a print sold for nearly $3 million.


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