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[外媒编译] 【时代周刊 20161117】一百张最有影响力的照片 之六

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发表于 2016-12-29 11:12 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

【中文标题】一百张最有影响力的照片 之六
【原文标题】Most Influential Photos
【登载媒体】
时代周刊
【原文作者】Ben Goldberger
【原文链接】http://100photos.time.com/photos/harold-edgerton-milk-drop



阿拉巴马伯明翰
查尔斯•摩尔
1963年


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有时候,最客观的镜子就是摄影。1963年夏天,伯明翰沸腾了,黑人居民和他们民权运动的盟友不断与白人当权者发生冲突,政府试图维持种族隔离政策,而黑人居民不惜一切代价要改变现状。作为《蒙特利尔顾问》和《生活》杂志的摄影师,查尔斯•摩尔是阿拉巴马州当地人,他出生在一个浸礼会传教士的家庭。他震惊地看到以法律和秩序的名义施加给非裔美国人的暴力现象。他拍摄了很多具有深远影响力的运动照片,但那张警犬撕咬黑人抗议者裤子的照片,最形象地刻画了屡见不鲜,甚至随手而为之的种族隔离暴力现象。照片在《生活》杂志上刊登之后,全世界人都了解了摩尔早已习以为常的事实:结束种族隔离并非文化的退化,而是恢复人性。犹豫不决的政客很快做出反应,在一年后通过了1964年的《人权法案》。

僧侣自焚
马尔科姆•布朗
1963年


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1963年6月的时候,大部分美国人还不知道越南在哪里。但是在美联社记者马尔科姆•布朗拍摄了释广德在西贡街道上自焚的照片之后,这个饱受战乱的东南亚国家让人永远无法忘记。布朗事先听闻会有民众抗议吴廷琰总统的佛教政策的事件发生。到达现场之后,他看到两位僧侣把汽油倒在一位坐在地上的年老僧侣身上。“我立刻知道会发生什么,于是每隔几秒就拍摄一张照片。”他的普利策奖获奖作品——看似平静的老僧打莲花座,混身被火焰包裹——成为了很快就会让美国陷入泥潭的国家标志性的形象。释广德的殉道行为,成为了这个国家不稳定的象征。肯尼迪总统后来说:“历史上没有任何一张新闻照片能像它一样引起全世界的情绪波动。”布朗的照片让人们开始质疑美国与吴廷琰政府的勾结行为,很快让政府下定决心不干涉11月发生的军事政变。

约翰•F•肯尼迪被刺杀,第313格胶片
亚伯拉罕•泽普鲁德
1963年


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这是最著名的私人拍摄短片,也是被研究得最彻底的视频图像,这幅8毫米的胶片捕捉到了一名总统的死亡过程。这个短片之所以出名的另一个原因是有太多人试图证明它暴露了那些细节,以及没有暴露那些细节,它的出现派生出人们对于达拉斯那一天发生的事件的无数阴谋理论。但没有人会否认它所展示的不仅仅是令人心碎的瞬间,年轻、富有魅力的约翰•菲茨杰拉德•肯尼迪和他的妻子杰奎琳驾车经过迪利广场。1963年11月22日清晨,业余摄影师亚伯拉罕•泽普鲁德拿着他的贝尔霍维尔摄像机,焦急地等待记录他的英雄经过的场景。正当泽普鲁德拍摄的时候,一颗子弹击中了肯尼迪的后背。在车辆行驶到泽普鲁德面前时,第二颗子弹击中了他的头部。《生活》杂志通讯员理查德•斯托利第二天买下了这部胶片,杂志发表了486格胶片中的31张照片。也就是说,公众最早看到的泽普鲁德拍摄的著名镜头是一系列静止的画面。当时,《生活》杂志保留了可怕的313格胶片——正是因为它没有出现,才格外令人期盼。子弹击穿肯尼迪头部的一瞬间,即使在今天看来也令人震惊,让人们联想到死亡的突然降临。泽普鲁德在那个明媚清晨拍摄到的画面必将让他终生难忘。它也一直困扰着美国,成为萦绕在我们脑海中挥之不去的噩梦,26.5秒的视频片段让我们发现,一切都可能在瞬间改变。

枕头大战
哈里•本森
1964年


54.jpg

哈里•本森本来对甲壳虫乐队没有兴趣。这位出生在格拉斯哥的摄影师计划前往非洲报道,但临时被派去巴黎给歌手照相。他不屑一顾地说:“我认为自己是个严肃的记者,不想去报道什么摇滚歌星。”但当他遇到这些来自利物浦的男孩,听过他们的演唱之后,本森再也不想离开了。“我想:‘天啊,这就是我要报道的故事。’”甲壳虫乐队风头正劲,本森的事业也如日中天。他的“枕头大战”照片拍摄于豪华的乔治五世酒店。当天晚上,乐队知道他们的单曲《我想握住你的手》登上了美国流行歌曲榜首,约翰、保罗、乔治和林戈孩子式的愉快心情充分释放,定格在照片中——这或许是他们最后一段无拘无束的天真时光。照片捕捉到了纯粹的喜悦、愉快和乐观,让甲壳虫乐迷和所有美国民众走出11个星期之前约翰•F•肯尼迪被刺杀的阴郁。接下来的一个月,本森跟随乐队飞往纽约,出席艾德苏力文秀,开启了英国文化入侵的序章。这次旅行,让本森开始了与乐队几十年的合作历程。他后来回忆到:“我差点就和他们失之交臂。”

穆罕默德•阿里对阵索尼•利斯顿
尼尔•雷佛
1965年


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伟大的照片来自于正确的时间和正确的地点,这一点怎样强调都不为过。这就是体育新闻插图摄影师尼尔•雷佛拍摄或许是上世纪最伟大的体育照片时,所奉行的原则。他说:“显然我选对了做为,但更重要的是我没有错过时机。”1965年5月25日,雷佛身处缅因州利文斯顿拳击场,23岁的重量级拳击冠军穆罕默德•阿里对阵34岁的索尼•利斯顿,阿里刚刚在上一年夺走了对方手中的冠军头衔。第一回合进行到1分44秒,阿里的右直拳击中利斯顿的下巴,对方倒地。雷佛拍下了这个瞬间:冠军站在被征服的对手身前,嘲弄地吼叫:“站起来再打,废物!”头顶的强光和雪茄的烟雾把拳击台变成了一个完美的摄影室,雷佛一点也没有浪费这个意境。他的构图捕捉到阿里释放的力量和诗意的粗鲁,让他成为这个国家最热爱,也是最痛恨的运动员。60年代混乱的体育竞技、政治和流行文化普遍受到了戕害。

18周胎儿
李纳德•尼尔森
1965年


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《生活》杂志在1965年发表了李纳德•尼尔森的照片文章“生命出生之前的故事”,这期杂志很受欢迎,几天内就销售一空。原因很简单。尼尔森的照片第一次揭示了发育中胎儿的样子,从而再一次提出了生命究竟开始于什么阶段的问题。《生活》杂志在文章中提到,其中有一张胎儿的照片是在子宫外,也就是堕胎后拍摄的,出于“一些医学方面的的原因”。尼尔森与斯德哥尔摩的一家医院提前联系,一旦有适合拍摄的胎儿,医生就给他打电话。在一个使用专门设计的光源和摄像镜头的房间里,尼尔森把胎儿安置在一个合适的位置,看起来就像漂浮在子宫中。

尼尔森的照片发表几年之后,在未经他同意的情况下,照片被广泛传播。尤其是反堕胎人士,他们使用照片来证明自己的立场。(尼尔森从未表明自己对于堕胎问题的态度。)尽管这张照片是在几十年拍摄的,但它清晰地显示了人类生命在最初阶段的样子。

毛主席畅游长江
摄影师不详
1966年


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在领导中国共产党和这个国家几十年之后,毛泽东开始考虑他将被后世如何铭记。这位72岁的主席害怕他的遗产被反革命分子破坏,于是在1966年7月,为了巩固他的权力,毛在长江中游泳,让全世界了解他的身体依然健康。这是一次绝佳的政治宣传。做为这位领导人流传出来的绝少照片之一,游泳的镜头实现了毛的期望。回到北京之后,毛发动了无产阶级文化大革命,号召民众清除他的对手。他对权力的把控更紧了。毛发动起这个国家的年轻人,告诉红卫兵们要“敢于使用暴力”。疯狂的情绪很快席卷了这个7.5亿人口的国家,士兵们紧握主席的红宝书,破坏古迹和庙宇,惩罚所谓的叛徒。当文化大革命在十年后结束的时候,有超过100万人丧生。

西贡处决
艾迪•亚当斯
1968年


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这种行为的漫不经心让人震惊。1968年2月1日,美联社摄影师艾迪•亚当斯走在西贡的街道上。两天前,越南人民军和越共发动了新年攻势,涌入了十几座南越城市。亚当斯在拍摄混乱的场景时,看到南越警察局长、准将阮玉湾,站在一个恐怖分子小队长阮文敛旁边,后者刚刚杀死了他的一个朋友。亚当斯以为他会看到的是审问一个没有还手之力的人,但当他举起相机的时候,阮玉湾平静地逃出.38口径手枪,毫不犹豫地朝阮文敛的头开了一枪。击毙对方之后,准将说他的行为无可争议:“如果你犹豫,如果你不这么做,手下的人不会服从你的命令。”新年攻势持续到3月份,尽管美国军队击退了共产党,但媒体对于混乱局势的报道让美国人相信这场战争他们无法取胜。阮文敛被击毙的瞬间代表了当时无数残暴的场景,照片的广泛传播让美国人进一步厌恶这场毫无意义的战争。更重要的是,亚当斯的照片引领出更加具有现场感的摄影记者风格。这张照片为他赢得了普利策奖,三十年后,他对自己的作品做出这样的评价:“摄影是世界上最强大的武器。”

入侵布拉格
约瑟夫•寇德卡
1968年


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苏联人并不关心亚历山大•杜布切克征服给捷克斯洛伐克带来的“人性社会主义”。由于担心杜布切克的人权改革会导致类似1956年的匈牙利起义,华约集团军队准备镇压这场运动。他们的坦克在1968年8月20日驶入捷克斯洛伐克,尽管很快控制了布拉格的局势,但遭遇到大批挥舞旗帜的公民。他们设置障碍,用石头攻击坦克,推翻卡车,拆除路标试图让军队迷路。约瑟夫•寇德卡是一名年轻的摩拉维亚工程师,他曾经拍摄过很多反映捷克生活的写实类照片。士兵进城时,他就在现场,于是拍摄了很多混乱场景的照片,为这个改变国家历史进程的重大事件留下了宝贵的记录。其中最有影响力的一张照片是一个男人的手臂,手表上显示了苏联入侵的时间,以及背景空旷的街道。它完美地结合了时间、损失、空虚和城市的死寂因素。

寇德卡对于冲突的影像记忆——时间的流逝,残酷的进攻和捷克公民的反抗——推动了摄影记者行业的发展。他的照片辗转流出捷克斯洛伐克,于1969年出现在《伦敦星期日泰晤士报》上,由于担心遭到报复,照片的署名是代表“布拉格摄影师”的缩写P.P。之后他离开了这个国家,他这样解释给这个国家留下照片记录的原因:“我害怕回到捷克斯洛伐克,因为我知道他们肯定会找到那个匿名的摄影师。”

向黑权致敬
约翰•多米尼斯
1968年


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奥运会是世界团结的盛会,但是当美国短跑运动员托米•史密斯和约翰•卡路士登上1968年墨西哥城奥运会的领奖台时,他们决定粉碎世界局势一片大好的假象。在“星条旗永不落”歌曲奏响之前,金牌获得者史密斯和铜牌获得者卡路士低下头,举起戴着黑手套的拳头。他们传达的信息很明确:在我们向美国致敬之前,美国必须要公平对待黑人。卡路士在后来说:“我们知道自己所做的事情超越了体育的范畴。”约翰•多米尼斯是个手脚麻利的摄影师,擅长捕捉转瞬即逝的瞬间。他的照片展示了现场的细节:史密斯没有穿鞋,脚上是一双黑色的袜子,象征黑人的贫穷。多米尼斯的照片在《生活》杂志上发表之后,把这个忧郁的抗议行为变成了60年代种族冲突的标志事件。


原文:

Birmingham, Alabama
Charles Moore
1963

Sometimes the most effective mirror is a photograph. In the summer of 1963, Birmingham was boiling over as black residents and their allies in the civil rights movement repeatedly clashed with a white power structure intent on maintaining segregation—and willing to do whatever that took. A photographer for the Montgomery Advertiser and life, Charles Moore was a native Alabaman and son of a Baptist preacher appalled by the violence inflicted on ­African Americans in the name of law and order. Though he photographed many other seminal moments of the movement, it was Moore’s image of a police dog tearing into a black protester’s pants that captured the routine, even casual, brutality of segregation. When the picture was published in life, it quickly became apparent to the rest of the world what Moore had long known: ending segregation was not about eroding culture but about restoring humanity. Hesitant politicians soon took up the cause and passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 nearly a year later.

The Burning Monk
Malcolm Browne
1963

In June 1963, most Americans couldn’t find Vietnam on a map. But there was no forgetting that war-torn Southeast Asian nation after Associated Press photographer Malcolm Browne captured the image of Thich Quang Duc immolating himself on a Saigon street. Browne had been given a heads-up that something was going to happen to protest the treatment of Buddhists by the regime of President Ngo Dinh Diem. Once there he watched as two monks doused the seated elderly man with gasoline. “I realized at that moment exactly what was happening, and began to take pictures a few seconds apart,” he wrote soon after. His Pulitzer Prize–­winning photo of the seemingly serene monk sitting lotus style as he is enveloped in flames became the first iconic image to emerge from a quagmire that would soon pull in America. Quang Duc’s act of martyrdom became a sign of the volatility of his nation, and President Kennedy later commented, “No news picture in history has generated so much emotion around the world as that one.” Browne’s photo forced people to question the U.S.’s association with ­Diem’s government, and soon resulted in the Administration’s decision not to interfere with a coup that November.

JFK Assassination, Frame 313
Abraham Zapruder
1963

It is the most famous home movie ever, and the most carefully studied image, an 8-millimeter film that captured the death of a President. The movie is just as well known for what many say it does or does not reveal, and its existence has fostered countless conspiracy theories about that day in Dallas. But no one would argue that what it shows is not utterly heartbreaking, the last moments of life of the youthful and charismatic John Fitzgerald Kennedy as he rode with his wife Jackie through Dealey Plaza. Amateur photographer Abraham Zapruder had eagerly set out with his Bell & Howell camera on the morning of November 22, 1963, to record the arrival of his hero. Yet as Zapruder filmed, one bullet struck Kennedy in the back, and as the President’s car passed in front of Zapruder, a second one hit him in the head. LIFE correspondent Richard Stolley bought the film the following day, and the magazine ran 31 of the 486 frames—which meant that the first public viewing of Zapruder’s famous film was as a series of still images. At the time, LIFE withheld the gruesome frame No. 313—a picture that became influential by its absence. That one, where the bullet exploded the side of Kennedy’s head, is still shocking when seen today, a reminder of the seeming suddenness of death. What Zapruder captured that sunny day would haunt him for the rest of his life. It is something that unsettles America, a dark dream that hovers at the back of our collective psyche, an image from a wisp of 26.5 seconds of film whose gut-wrenching impact reminds us how everything can change in a fraction of a moment.

The Pillow Fight
Harry Benson
1964

Harry Benson didn’t want to meet the Beatles. The Glasgow-born photographer had plans to cover a news story in Africa when he was assigned to photograph the musicians in Paris. “I took myself for a serious journalist and I didn’t want to cover a rock ’n’ roll story,” he scoffed. But once he met the boys from Liverpool and heard them play, Benson had no desire to leave. “I thought, ‘God, I’m on the right story.’ ” The Beatles were on the cusp of greatness, and Benson was in the middle of it. His pillow-fight photo, taken in the swanky George V Hotel the night the band found out “I Want to Hold Your Hand” hit No. 1 in the U.S., freezes John, Paul, George and Ringo in an exuberant cascade of boyish talent—and perhaps their last moment of unbridled innocence. It captures the sheer joy, happiness and optimism that would be embraced as Beatlemania and that helped lift America’s morale just 11 weeks after John F. Kennedy’s assassination. The following month, Benson accompanied the Fab Four as they flew to New York City to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show, kick-starting the British Invasion. The trip led to decades of collaboration with the group and, as Benson later recalled, “I was so close to not being there.”

Muhammad Ali vs. Sonny Liston
Neil Leifer
1965

So much of great photography is being in the right spot at the right moment. That was what it was like for sports illustrated photographer Neil Leifer when he shot perhaps the greatest sports photo of the century. “I was obviously in the right seat, but what matters is I didn’t miss,” he later said. Leifer had taken that ringside spot in Lewiston, Maine, on May 25, 1965, as 23-year-old heavyweight boxing champion Muhammad Ali squared off against 34-year-old Sonny Liston, the man he’d snatched the title from the previous year. One minute and 44 seconds into the first round, Ali’s right fist connected with Liston’s chin and Liston went down. Leifer snapped the photo of the champ towering over his vanquished opponent and taunting him, “Get up and fight, sucker!” Power­ful overhead lights and thick clouds of cigar smoke had turned the ring into the perfect studio, and Leifer took full advantage. His perfectly composed image captures Ali radiating the strength and poetic brashness that made him the nation’s most beloved and reviled athlete, at a moment when sports, politics and popular culture were being squarely battered in the tumult of the ’60s.

Fetus, 18 weeks
Lennart Nilsson
1965

When LIFE published Lennart Nilsson’s photo essay “Drama of Life Before Birth” in 1965, the issue was so popular that it sold out within days. And for good reason. Nilsson’s images publicly revealed for the first time what a developing fetus looks like, and in the process raised pointed new questions about when life begins. In the accompanying story, LIFE explained that all but one of the fetuses pictured were photographed outside the womb and had been removed—or aborted—“for a variety of medical reasons.” Nilsson had struck a deal with a hospital in Stockholm, whose doctors called him whenever a fetus was available to photograph. There, in a dedicated room with lights and lenses specially designed for the project, Nilsson arranged the fetuses so they appeared to be floating as if in the womb.

In the years since Nilsson’s essay was published, the images have been widely appropriated without his permission. Antiabortion activists in particular have used them to advance their cause. (Nilsson has never taken a public stand on abortion.) Still, decades after they first appeared, Nilsson’s images endure for their unprecedentedly clear, detailed view of human life at its earliest stages.

Chairman Mao Swims in the Yangtze
Unknown
1966

After decades leading the Chinese Communist Party and then his nation, Mao Zedong began to worry about how he would be remembered. The 72-year-old Chairman feared too that his legacy would be under­mined by the stirrings of a counterrevolution. And so in July 1966, with an eye toward securing his grip on power, Mao took a dip in the Yangtze River to show the world that he was still in robust health. It was a propaganda coup. The image of that swim, one of the few widely circulated photos of the leader, did just what Mao hoped. Back in Beijing, Mao launched his Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, rallying the masses to purge his rivals. His grip on power was tighter than ever. Mao enlisted the nation’s young people and implored these rabid Red Guards to “dare to be violent.” Insanity quickly descended on the land of 750 million, as troops clutching the Chairman’s Little Red Book smashed relics and temples and punished perceived traitors. When the Cultural Revolution finally petered out a decade later, more than a million people had perished.

Saigon Execution
Eddie Adams
1968

The act was stunning in its casualness. Associated Press photographer Eddie Adams was on the streets of Saigon on February 1, 1968, two days after the forces of the People’s Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong set off the Tet offensive and swarmed into dozens of South Vietnamese cities. As Adams photographed the turmoil, he came upon Brigadier General Nguyen Ngoc Loan, chief of the national police, standing alongside ­Nguyen Van Lem, the captain of a terrorist squad who had just killed the family of one of Loan’s friends. Adams thought he was watching the interrogation of a bound prisoner. But as he looked through his viewfinder, Loan calmly raised his .38-caliber pistol and summarily fired a bullet through Lem’s head. After shooting the suspect, the general justified the suddenness of his actions by saying, “If you hesitate, if you didn’t do your duty, the men won’t follow you.” The Tet offensive raged into March. Yet while U.S. forces beat back the communists, press reports of the anarchy convinced Americans that the war was unwinnable. The freezing of the moment of Lem’s death symbolized for many the brutality over there, and the picture’s widespread publication helped galvanize growing sentiment in America about the futility of the fight. More important, Adams’ photo ushered in a more intimate level of war photojournalism. He won a Pulitzer Prize for this image, and as he commented three decades later about the reach of his work, “Still photographs are the most powerful weapon in the world.”

Invasion of Prague
Josef Koudelka
1968

The Soviets did not care for the “socialism with a human face” that Alexander Dubcek’s government brought to ­Czechoslovakia. Fearing that Dubcek’s human-rights reforms would lead to a democratic uprising like the one in Hungary in 1956, Warsaw Bloc forces set out to quash the movement. Their tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia on August 20, 1968. And while they quickly seized control of Prague, they unexpectedly ran up against masses of flag-waving citizens who threw up barricades, stoned tanks, overturned trucks and even removed street signs in order to confuse the troops. Josef Koudelka, a young Moravian-born engineer who had been taking wistful and gritty photos of Czech life, was in the capital when the soldiers arrived. He took pictures of the swirling turmoil and created a groundbreaking record of the invasion that would change the course of his nation. The most seminal piece includes a man’s arm in the foreground, showing on his wristwatch a moment of the Soviet invasion with a deserted street in the distance. It beautifully encapsulates time, loss and emptiness—and the strangling of a society.

Koudelka’s visual memories of the unfolding ­conflict—with its evidence of the ticking time, the brutality of the attack and the challenges by Czech ­citizens—redefined photojournalism. His pictures were smuggled out of Czechoslovakia and appeared in the London Sunday Times in 1969, though under the pseudonym P.P. for Prague Photographer since Koudelka feared reprisals. He soon fled, his rationale for leaving the country a testament to the power of photographic evidence: “I was afraid to go back to Czechoslovakia because I knew that if they wanted to find out who the unknown photographer was, they could do it.”

Black Power Salute
John Dominis
1968

The Olympics are intended to be a celebration of global unity. But when the American sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos ascended the medal stand at the 1968 Games in Mexico City, they were determined to shatter the illusion that all was right in the world. Just before “The Star-Spangled Banner” began to play, Smith, the gold medalist, and Carlos, the bronze winner, bowed their heads and raised black-gloved fists in the air. Their message could not have been clearer: Before we salute America, America must treat blacks as equal. “We knew that what we were going to do was far greater than any athletic feat,” Carlos later said. John Dominis, a quick-fingered life photographer known for capturing unexpected moments, shot a close-up that revealed another layer: Smith in black socks, his running shoes off, in a gesture meant to symbolize black poverty. Published in life, Dominis’ image turned the somber protest into an iconic emblem of the turbulent 1960s.


发表于 2017-1-4 09:25 | 显示全部楼层
毛主席畅游长江
摄影师不详
1966年

  

在领导中国共产党和这个国家几十年之后,毛泽东开始考虑他将被后世如何铭记。这位72岁的主席害怕他的遗产被反革命分子破坏,于是在1966年7月,为了巩固他的权力,毛在长江中游泳,让全世界了解他的身体依然健康。这是一次绝佳的政治宣传。做为这位领导人流传出来的绝少照片之一,游泳的镜头实现了毛的期望。回到北京之后,毛发动了无产阶级文化大革命,号召民众清除他的对手。他对权力的把控更紧了。毛发动起这个国家的年轻人,告诉红卫兵们要“敢于使用暴力”。疯狂的情绪很快席卷了这个7.5亿人口的国家,士兵们紧握主席的红宝书,破坏古迹和庙宇,惩罚所谓的叛徒。当文化大革命在十年后结束的时候,有超过100万人丧生。
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狗嘴吐不出象牙,我知道这个几次把邓小平登上封面的时代周刊的政治立场了。
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