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[外媒编译] 经济学人:国家竞争靠“实力”,美好生活靠“主义”

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发表于 2016-12-29 14:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
意识形态|《经济学人》:国家竞争靠“实力”,美好生活靠“主义”原创 2016-12-29 从余启 我与我们的世界

欢迎打开“我与我们的世界”,从此,让我们一起“纵览世界之风云变幻、洞察社会之脉搏律动、感受个体之生活命运、挖掘自然之点滴奥妙”。
我与我们的世界,既是一个“奋斗”的世界,也是一个“思考”的世界。奋而不思则罔,思而不奋则殆。这个世界,你大,它就大;你小,它就小。
欢迎通过上方公众号名称打开公众号“查看历史信息”来挖掘往期文章,因为,每期都能让你“走近”不一样的世界、带给你不一样的精彩。

本期导读:我们每个人,都会有很多重要的东西,而那些东西,大体上可分为两类,一类是有形的,一类是无形的,前者主要“滋养”我们的躯体,后者主要“抚慰”我们的灵体。只有躯体和灵体都获得某种程度上的“安稳”后,我们的生活也才能与“美好”沾上边。

这个道理,既适用于个体的生命,也适用于由个体组成的共同体。不管是个体还是共同体,若想生存,就必须有供养“躯体”的物质实力,若想延绵,就必须有引领“灵体”的精神主义。物质实力和精神主义,两者缺一不可。

相对来讲,物质实力的获得,靠的主要是强壮的体格,精神主义的获取,靠的则主要是深刻的思考。可喜的是,只要体格够壮,一般情况下,人便不会饿死,不过,可悲的是,即使有了深刻的思考,也不一定能带来滋养人的精神。

人类发展的历史进程中,从古至今,各个民族都有很多仁人志士,为个体、共同体的存续而绞尽脑汁,进行着各种类型的思考,也因此产生了各式各样的“主义”。不过,不管是对个体还是共同体来说,不管选择的是哪个主义,有一点最为重要,那就是“自信”

那种自信,不仅需要体现于对所选择的道路上,还要体现于那条道路所基于的理论,更体现于理论基础上所创建出来的制度,而最为关键的,也需要体现于制度背后隐藏的那种文化,是为“道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信”。



7:46Liberalism's future来自我与我们的世界
The future of liberalism
自由主义的未来
How to make sense of 2016
眼花缭乱的2016,该如何解?

Liberals lost most of the arguments this year. They should not feel defeated so much as invigorated
自由主义,纵然在2016年节节败退,但却不能气馁。

FOR a certain kind of liberal, 2016 stands as a rebuke. If you believe, as The Economist does, in open economies and open societies, where the free exchange of goods, capital, people and ideas is encouraged and where universal freedoms are protected from state abuse by the rule of law, then this has been a year of setbacks. Not just over Brexit and the election of Donald Trump, but also the tragedy of Syria, abandoned to its suffering, and widespread support—in Hungary, Poland and beyond—for “illiberal democracy”. As globalisation has become a slur, nationalism, and even authoritarianism, have flourished. In Turkey relief at the failure of a coup was overtaken by savage (and popular) reprisals. In the Philippines voters chose a president who not only deployed death squads but bragged about pulling the trigger. All the while Russia, which hacked Western democracy, and China, which just last week set out to taunt America by seizing one of its maritime drones, insist liberalism is merely a cover for Western expansion.
对有些自由派人士来说,2016年,堪称蒙羞之年。若您也像《经济学人》一样,向往开放型的经济、开放型的社会,货物、资本、人员、观念能顺畅流通,自由能得到法治保障免于被权力侵害,那么,2016年,显然是个充满逆流的年份。之所以这样,不仅因为英国要脱欧、特朗普要入主白宫,还因为,整个叙利亚已变成人间地狱,至今仍在泥潭里挣扎,而且,在匈牙利、波兰以及很多其他国家,“偏执型民主”得到广泛支持。全球化逐渐成为了一个“污浊”词汇,而同时,民族主义甚至威权主义却大放异彩。在土耳其,人们对政变未遂的欣慰之感,已被野蛮的(同时也受到普遍支持的)报复行动所吞噬。在菲律宾,选民们选出的新总统,不仅派用了敢死队进行禁毒,还扬言要就美菲关系做最后决断。插手美国大选的俄罗斯,以及就在上周通过擒获潜航器开始戏耍美国的中国,一直以来都坚称,自由主义,只是西方用来进行扩张的一面遮羞布

1.rebuke [rɪ'bjuːk] vt. 指责,非难;使相形见绌;n. 非难,谴责,鞭策
2.setback['setbæk] n. 挫折;退步;逆流
3.illiberal [ɪ'lɪb(ə)r(ə)l] adj. 偏执的;吝啬的;粗鄙的;狭隘的;缺乏素养的
4.slur [slɜː] vt. 忽视;草率地看过;含糊地念;诋毁;vi. 含糊地发音;潦草地写字;拖着脚走;n. 污点;诽谤;连音符
5.savage ['sævɪdʒ] adj. 野蛮的;残酷的;狂怒的;荒凉的;n. 未开化的人;粗鲁的人;残暴成性的人;vt. 乱咬;粗暴的对待
6.reprisal[rɪ'praɪz(ə)l] n. 报复(行为);报复性劫掠
7.pull the trigger (on something) : to make a final decision or commit to a certain course of action (about something)
8.taunt [tɔːnt] n. 嘲弄;讥讽;vt. 奚落;逗弄;adj. 很高的

Faced with this litany, many liberals (of the free-market sort) have lost their nerve. Some have written epitaphs for the liberal order and issued warnings about the threat to democracy. Others argue that, with a timid tweak to immigration law or an extra tariff, life will simply return to normal. That is not good enough. The bitter harvest of 2016 has not suddenly destroyed liberalism’s claim to be the best way to confer dignity and bring about prosperity and equity. Rather than ducking the struggle of ideas, liberals should relish it.
面对着这么一长串悲剧,很多自由人士,特别是自由市场经济的信奉者,已丧失了前行的信心与勇气。有些自由人士,已为自由秩序的死亡准备好了悼词,并发出警告称,民主正面临威胁。还有些自由人士称,移民政策或许会收紧些,贸易壁垒也或许会增多些,但都不会成什么气候,生活将会重返常态。不过,这些看法都没说到点子上。2016年所发生的汩汩逆流,依然没能摧毁这样一种信念:自由主义依然是带来尊严、创造繁荣、促进平等的最好路径。自由主义者们,应该重振旗鼓,为自由主义呐喊,而非犹豫不决、踟蹰不前。

1.litany ['lɪt(ə)nɪ] n. 冗长而枯燥的陈述;连祷
2.lose one's nerve 不知所措;慌张;失去勇气
3.epitaph['epɪtɑːf] n. 碑文,墓志铭
4.timid ['tɪmɪd] adj. 胆小的;羞怯的
5.tweak [twiːk] n. 扭;拧;焦急;vt. 扭;用力拉;开足马力
6.confer [kən'fɜː] vt. 授予;给予;vi. 协商
7.duck[dʌk] n. 鸭子;鸭肉;(英)宝贝儿;零分;vi. 闪避;没入水中;vt. 躲避;猛按…入水
8.relish ['relɪʃ] n. 滋味;风味;食欲;开胃小菜;含义;调味品;vt. 盼望;期待;享受; 品味;喜爱;给…加佐料;vi. 有特定意味;味道可口

Mill wheels
细水才能长流
In the past quarter-century liberalism has had it too easy. Its dominance following Soviet communism’s collapse decayed into laziness and complacency. Amid growing inequality, society’s winners told themselves that they lived in a meritocracy—and that their success was therefore deserved. The experts recruited to help run large parts of the economy marvelled at their own brilliance. But ordinary people often saw wealth as a cover for privilege and expertise as disguised self-interest.
过去的二三十年,自由主义一路以来顺风顺水。苏联共产主义倒台后,自由主义艳压群芳,但后来却逐渐堕落,不思进取、洋洋自得。社会不平等在恶化的同时,赢家们却一直迷醉于精英主义的氛围,也因此觉得,他们的成功理所当然。被政府雇来为经济发展服务的专家顾问们,也深深迷醉于自己的聪明才智。但是,普罗大众们却大都视那套致富理论,为上层特权、“砖家削者”、虚伪自私的遮羞布。

1.complacency [kəm'pleɪs(ə)nsɪ] n. 自满;满足;自鸣得意
2.meritocracy [,merɪ'tɒkrəsɪ] n. 英才教育(制度);精英管理的社会
3.marvel['mɑːv(ə)l] n. 奇迹;vt. 对…感到惊异;vi. 感到惊讶
4.expertise [,ekspɜː'tiːz] n. 专门知识;专门技术;专家的意见

After so long in charge, liberals, of all people, should have seen the backlash coming. As a set of beliefs that emerged at the start of the 19th century to oppose both the despotism of absolute monarchy and the terror of revolution, liberalism warns that uninterrupted power corrupts. Privilege becomes self-perpetuating. Consensus stifles creativity and initiative. In an ever-shifting world, dispute and argument are not just inevitable; they are welcome because they lead to renewal.
很长时间以来,自由主义一直是整个人类社会的主旋律,但现在,所有国家的自由主义者们,应该已经看到,自由主义正遭受着其自身所产生的影响的影响。作为19世纪初出现的一套用来反对君主专制以及恐怖革命的思想观念,自由主义相信,专权会导致腐败,特权会自我强化,大一统会泯灭创造创新。当今的世界,是一个急剧变更的世界,异议争论不仅无法避免,而且应受到欢迎,因为它们会促生革新。

1.despotism ['despətɪz(ə)m] n. 专制,独裁;专制政治
2.monarchy ['mɒnəkɪ] n. 君主政体;君主国;君主政治
3.perpetuate [pə'petʃʊeɪt] vt. 使不朽;保持;adj. 长存的
4.stifle['staɪf(ə)l] vt. 扼杀;使窒息;藏匿;vi. 窒息;被扼杀

What is more, liberals have something to offer societies struggling with change. In the 19th century, as today, old ways were being upended by relentless technological, economic, social and political forces. People yearned for order. The illiberal solution was to install someone with sufficient power to dictate what was best—by slowing change if they were conservative, or smashing authority if they were revolutionary. You can hear echoes of that in calls to “take back control”, as well as in the mouths of autocrats who, summoning an angry nationalism, promise to hold back the cosmopolitan tide.
还有,自由主义,也能为面临各种变化挑战的社会提供有益借鉴。19世纪那时,和现在一样,随着技术、经济、社会以及政治发生急剧变更,老方式、老办法变得支离破碎,人们渴望新秩序的出现。比较疯狂的解决方案是,把某人推上宝座,赋予其足够多的权力,让他来决定什么是好、什么是坏,这样做的结果无非两个,若得到权力的人是个保守主义者,整个社会就会弄得止步不前,若得到权力的人是个革命主义者,整个秩序就会搞得破碎不堪。今天的世界,你也能听到类似的声音,有的人在喊“要拿回控制权”,也有独裁专制的人,通过煽动民族主义,试图阻挡全球化潮流。

1.upend[ʌp'end] vt. 倒放,颠倒;竖立
2.relentless [rɪ'lentlɪs] adj. 无情的;残酷的;不间断的
3.dictate [dɪk'teɪt] vt. 命令;口述;使听写;vi. 口述;听写;n. 命令;指示
4.smash[smæʃ] vt. 粉碎;使破产;溃裂;n. 破碎;扣球;冲突;大败;vi. 粉碎;打碎;adj. 了不起的;非常轰动的;出色的
5.autocrat['ɔːtəkræt] n. 独裁者,专制君主;独断独行的人
6.summon['sʌmən] vt. 召唤;召集;鼓起;振作
7.cosmopolitan [,kɒzmə'pɒlɪt(ə)n] adj. 世界性的;世界主义的,四海一家的;n. 四海为家者;世界主义者;世界各地都有的东西

Liberals came up with a different answer. Rather than being concentrated, power should be dispersed, using the rule of law, political parties and competitive markets. Rather than putting citizens at the service of a mighty, protecting state, liberalism sees individuals as uniquely able to choose what is best for themselves. Rather than running the world through warfare and strife, countries should embrace trade and treaties.
自由主义对此却有一套不同的解决方案。自由主义认为,应该分散权力、采取法治、运用政党政治、利用市场竞争,而非集中权力。自由主义认为,个人有足够的能力,来决定什么才是对自己最好的,而不应总让民众都为庞大全能的政权服务献身;自由主义还认为,国家之间应促进贸易交流、签订各种协议,而非总是诉诸战争冲突,让世界永无宁日。

1.disperse[dɪ'spɜːs] vt. 分散;使散开;传播;vi. 分散;adj. 分散的
2.strife [straɪf] n. 冲突;争吵;不和

Such ideas have imprinted themselves on the West—and, despite Mr Trump’s flirtation with protectionism, they will probably endure. But only if liberalism can deal with its other problem: the loss of faith in progress. Liberals believe that change is welcome because, on the whole, it is for the better. Sure enough, they can point to how global poverty, life expectancy, opportunity and peace are all improving, even allowing for strife in the Middle East. Indeed, for most people on Earth there has never been a better time to be alive.
这样的观念,在西方已根深蒂固,而且也很可能将继续存续下去,尽管西方有着一位与保护主义眉来眼去的特朗普,不过,也需要靠自由主义重拾信心,坚定对发展进步的信念。自由主义者认为,应该欢迎改变,因为,总体上来说,改变会带来好处。确实,自由主义者可以说,全球的贫困正在减少,人类的寿命正在提升,社会的机会正在增多,世界的和平正在改善,尽管中东乱局也是由自由主义者们一手造成的。也确实,对于生活在地球上的绝大多数人,当下的这个时代,已是人类历史上最好的时代

1.imprint [ɪm'prɪnt] n. 印记;痕迹;特征;版本说明;vt. 加特征;刻上记号
2.flirtation [flɜː'teɪʃn] n. 调情;调戏;挑逗;不认真的考虑

Large parts of the West, however, do not see it that way. For them, progress happens mainly to other people. Wealth does not spread itself, new technologies destroy jobs that never come back, an underclass is beyond help or redemption, and other cultures pose a threat—sometimes a violent one.
不过,西方世界的很多人,却并不这么认为。对他们来说,发展进步主要都由他人尽享了,财富它不会自动进行分配,新技术摧毁了曾有的工作机会,社会底层得不到帮助和救赎,其他文化文明都是威胁,有时还充满暴力。

1.underclass ['ʌndəklɑːs] n. 下层阶级,下层社会;一、二年级学生
2.redemption [rɪ'dem(p)ʃ(ə)n] n. 赎回;拯救;偿还;实践

If it is to thrive, liberalism must have an answer for the pessimists, too. Yet, during those decades in power, liberals’ solutions have been underwhelming. In the 19th century liberal reformers met change with universal education, a vast programme of public works and the first employment rights. Later, citizens got the vote, health care and a safety net. After the second world war, America built a global liberal order, using bodies such as the UN and the IMF to give form to its vision.
自由主义若想重振,就必须为那些悲观人士也提供一份满意的答案。不过,过去的几十年间,自由主义却没在人们心中留下深刻的良好形象,尽管自由主义式的解决方案一直在起着作用。19世纪,正是自由主义改革者们面临挑战之际,普及了教育、推进了公共福利、促进了就业权利,随之,人们获得了选举权、享受到了健康福利、并构建起了安全网,二战后,美国创建了全球性的自由秩序,并通过诸如联合国、国际货币基金组织等国际机构来塑造美国眼中的理想世界。

1.thrive [θraɪv] vi. 繁荣,兴旺;茁壮成长
2.underwhelm[,ʌndə'welm] vt. 未留下深刻印象

Nothing half so ambitious is coming from the West today. That must change. Liberals must explore the avenues that technology and social needs will open up. Power could be devolved from the state to cities, which act as laboratories for fresh policies. Politics might escape sterile partisanship using new forms of local democracy. The labyrinth of taxation and regulation could be rebuilt rationally. Society could transform education and work so that “college” is something you return to over several careers in brand new industries. The possibilities are as yet unimagined, but a liberal system, in which individual creativity, preferences and enterprise have full expression, is more likely to seize them than any other.
而当今的西方世界,像以往那样的壮志雄心,已荡然无存,这点必须改变。自由主义者们,必须跟进技术更新换代,必须回应社会需求。权力可从国家层面下放至较低层级,这样可让地方进行尝试政策创新。政治需要摆脱无休无止的党争,发展新型的基层民主。冗杂的税务以及相关法规,也需以理性的方式进行重建。整个社会有待变更,教育模式、工作方式也需改进,让“大学”成为人们在新兴行业就业所需技能的加油站。尽管将来具体会怎样,现在依然都还没确定的答案,但是,能确保个体发展创新、潜能发挥、奋发进取的自由主义,依然是比其他任何主义都更可能赋予未来以确定性的思想理念

1.ambitious [æm'bɪʃəs] adj. 野心勃勃的;有雄心的;热望的;炫耀的
2.avenue['æv(ə)njuː] n. 大街;林荫大道;[比喻](达到某物的)途径,手段,方法,渠道
3.devolve[dɪ'vɒlv] vi. 被移交;转让;vt. 转移;移交;使滚下;衰落
4.sterile ['steraɪl] adj. 不育的;无菌的;贫瘠的;不毛的;枯燥乏味的
5.labyrinth ['læb(ə)rɪnθ] n. 迷宫;[解剖] 迷路;难解的事物
6.enterprise['entəpraɪz] n. 企业;事业;进取心;事业心

The dream of reason
呼唤理性,成就梦想
After 2016, is that dream still possible? Some perspective is in order. This newspaper believes that Brexit and a Trump presidency are likely to prove costly and harmful. We are worried about today’s mix of nationalism, corporatism and popular discontent. However, 2016 also represented a demand for change. Never forget liberals’ capacity for reinvention. Do not underestimate the scope for people, including even a Trump administration and post-Brexit Britain, to think and innovate their way out of trouble. The task is to harness that restless urge, while defending the tolerance and open-mindedness that are the foundation stones of a decent, liberal world.
2016年过后,那样的梦想是否有实现的可能?时间会证明一切,未来也会逐渐揭开它的面纱。我们杂志社相信,英国脱欧以及特朗普入主白宫,很可能会造成巨大成本、带来莫大伤害。当下,我们最为担心的是,民族主义、抱团主义以及民粹主义发生合流。尽管2016年也是一个充满呼吁改变的年份,但不要忘了,自由主义所具有的那种自我革新的本性,同时,也不要低估了人民为摆脱困顿所将迸发出来的潜能,尽管特朗普依然会入主白宫、英国也会脱离欧盟。当下的任务是,要把控好内心冲动,要保持好忍耐宽容,要维护好开放心态,因为,所有这些,都是构建自由美好世界最为重要的基石。

1.newspaper ['njuːzpeɪpə] n. 报纸;报社;旧报纸
2.corporatism ['kɔrpərətɪzəm] n. 社团主义;组合主义(等于corporativism)
3.scope [skəʊp] n. 范围;余地;视野;眼界;导弹射程;vt. 审视



往期精彩:

英欧离婚|《经济学人》:走到一起不容易,分起手来更麻烦,且行且珍惜
东亚局势|《全球脑库》:特朗普时代的日本,将会兴什么风、作什么浪?
死人VS活人|《水调歌头》:人的生命,或重于泰山,或轻于鸿毛
诗图一家|《一路行,一路思》:生活的意义,在于跳动着的心脏以及思考着的大脑

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 楼主| 发表于 2016-12-30 08:54 | 显示全部楼层
国家竞争近在眼前,美好生活就在身边。。。
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国家竞争靠实力,实力有硬实力和软实力。
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