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[外媒编译] 【时代周刊 20161117】一百张最有影响力的照片 之九

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发表于 2017-1-4 08:56 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

【中文标题】一百张最有影响力的照片 之九
【原文标题】Most Influential Photos
【登载媒体】
时代周刊
【原文作者】Ben Goldberger
【原文链接】http://100photos.time.com/photos/harold-edgerton-milk-drop


无题(牛仔)
理查德•普林斯
1989年


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当理查德•普林斯在时代华纳公司撕页部门工作时,头脑中闪过了一个念头,这个想法颠覆了摄影界中作品所有权神圣不可侵犯的概念。他在整理档案室中的杂志时,被一篇文章的配图所吸引:一个颇具男子气概的万宝路男在蓝天白云下策马扬鞭。于是,普林斯用他后来所说的“翻拍”方式,给这张图片拍了一张照片。翻拍的照片切掉了一部分画面,只留下牛仔和他周围的景色。并非原始作品这个因素丝毫没有影响收藏者眼中的价值。2005年,“无题(牛仔)”以120万美元的价格拍出,创下当时现代照片的价格之最。

其他人就没那么热衷了。普林斯被一名摄影师起诉,原因是使用了具有版权的图片,但是法院的裁决倾向于普林斯一方。这并不是他唯一是胜利。普林斯的翻拍技术开创了一个新的艺术领域——给照片拍照片,预示了数码分享时代的来临,同时颠覆了我们对于照片真伪和所有权的认知。

艾滋病人的面孔
特蕾莎•弗拉里
1990年


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戴维•科尔比在家人的环绕中死去。但是特蕾莎•弗拉里拍下的这位32岁的男人在病床上的场景,捕捉到的不仅仅是这个令人心碎的瞬间。它人性化了艾滋病,恐怖的疾病不但杀死了科尔比,而且躲在大众视野之外蹂躏着无数的受害者。弗拉里的照片于1990年刊登在《生活》杂志上,它表现出这个广受误解的疾病摧毁的不仅仅是患者本人。一年之后,红丝带成为了同情、坚韧的标志。三年后,比尔•克林顿政府成立了白宫艾滋病政策办公室。1992年,服装公司贝纳通使用彩色版本的弗拉里的照片,制作了一系列具有挑衅意味的广告。很多杂志拒绝刊登这个广告,还有几个民间组织呼吁抵制这个品牌。但是科尔比的家人同意使用照片,他们觉得广告可以提升公众对于艾滋病急迫性的了解,毕竟,这种疾病依然不可控,患者还在极力推动政府加快新药的研制进度。科尔比的母亲凯说:“我们只是觉得该让人们了解艾滋病的真相了。”感谢弗拉里的照片,他们做到了。

黛米•摩尔
安妮•莱博维茨
1991年


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好莱坞影星黛米•摩尔第二个孩子怀孕7个月时,她一丝不挂地出现在《名利场》杂志的封面。对摩尔来说,这算不上异常举动,在生第一个孩子的时候,她用三架摄影机记录了整个过程。但对于一个主流媒体来说,这是一个异乎寻常的举动。人像摄影师安妮•莱博维茨拍摄的这张照片,尽可能用具有挑逗性的方式展现怀孕之美,让人们看到怀孕不仅是一股强大的力量,而且也可以很性感。杂志的编辑迪娜•布朗认为摩尔的决定是勇敢者的宣言:“一个年轻的影星愿意公开表示:‘我怀孕也很美丽。’而不是对其感到羞耻。”这张照片是第一张刊登在主流媒体上性感化怀孕的照片,很多人觉得把它放在报刊亭中实在不雅。有些杂货店拒绝进货,还有人把它藏起来,就像是拿到了色情书刊。当然它不是色情。但它毕竟是一个具有挑逗性的杂志封面,它具备一切优秀杂志封面的必要条件——改变传统文化。在当时,怀孕还是一个相对私密的话题,即使对公众人物来说也是如此。莱博维茨的作品发表之后,明星产子和裸体怀孕照片,以及业余摄影师拍摄的肚腹隆起的照片,逐渐形成了一种产业。

波斯尼亚
朗•哈维夫
1992年


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即使最令人震惊的照片,也需要一段时间才能发挥其影响力。当美国人朗•哈维夫拍摄到一名塞尔维亚士兵脚踢被枪击的穆斯林女性时,波斯尼亚的战争尚未打响。哈维夫设法进入了一个残忍的民族主义武装组织猛虎队,他们警告他不要拍摄任何杀戮的镜头。但是哈维夫下定决心要记录下他亲眼看到的一切,要冒个险。《时代周刊》在一周之后刊登了这幅照片,随意施暴的图像引发了广泛的争论,国际社会对当地恶化的形势没有足够的响应。尽管如此,战争依然持续了三年多。哈维夫被猛虎队的领导人杰利科•拉兹尼亚托维奇——也就是阿尔坎——列入追杀名单,他对于国际社会的响应深感失望。将近10万人丧生。在2000年被暗杀之前,阿尔坎被指控犯有反人类罪。哈维夫的照片被当作他后来被称为“种族清洗”罪名的指控证据。

索马里饥荒
詹姆斯•纳赫特韦
1992年


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詹姆斯•纳赫特韦未能争取到报道1992年春天发生在索马里的饥荒的工作。摩加迪沙已经被武装冲突所包围,食品价格疯涨,国际救援组织无法维持当地的和平。但西方国家基本没有什么反应,于是这位美国摄影师在红十字国际委员会的资助下,只身前往索马里。纳赫特韦带回了一大批震动人心的照片,包括这一张,一个女人躺在手推车里,等待被送往食品救济中心。这张照片被《纽约时报杂志》刊登在封面,一位读者写道:“我们敢说情况不会变得更加糟糕吗?”整个世界都被振动了。红十字会说,来自各方的支持形成了自二战以来最大规模的援助行动。红十字国际委员会的简•丹尼尔•陶克斯说,我们挽救了150万人的生命,“詹姆斯的照片带来了改变”。

饥饿的儿童和秃鹫
凯文•卡特
1993年


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凯文•卡特熟悉死亡的恶臭味道。他是枪声俱乐部的成员,这个有四名勇敢摄影师的组织记录了南非种族隔离时代的景象。在工作中,他见到了太多令人心碎的时刻。1993年,他前往苏丹,去拍摄席卷这片土地的大饥荒。在阿约德村辛苦拍摄了一整天之后,他来到一片开阔的灌木丛。这时他听到微弱的呜咽声,循声找到了一个羸弱的幼童,倒在去往食品中心的路上。他刚开始拍摄照片,一只凶猛的秃鹫落在附近。据说,卡特曾经被告知不要触碰受害者,因为他们染有疾病,于是他没有伸出援手。等待了20分钟,秃鹫也没有飞走的意思。卡特后来赶走了秃鹫,孩子站起来,继续走向食品中心。他点燃一支烟,流着眼泪向上帝祈祷。《纽约时报》发表了这张照片,读者迫切想要了解这个孩子后来怎样了,同时批评卡特没有施以援手。他的照片很快成为争论的焦点,摄影师是否应当干涉拍摄对象。后续的调查发现,孩子活下来了,但在14岁时感染疟疾死去。卡特的这张照片获得了普利策奖,但那个阳光明媚的日子里的阴影始终挥之不去。1994年,他在自杀前的遗书中写道:“我始终无法忘记那些鲜活的杀戮、尸体、愤怒和痛苦场景。”

生命之柱
美国宇航局
1995年


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哈勃太空望远镜差一点就没有拍摄到这张照片。它在1990年搭载亚特兰帝斯号太空飞船升空,整个计划严重超预算、落后原计划若干年,在进入轨道之后镜头无法聚焦,直径8英尺的反射镜由于制造缺陷而发生扭曲。直到1993年哈勃才被修复。最终,1995年4月1日,望远镜开始发挥作用,它拍摄到清晰、深邃的宇宙图片,被称为“生命之柱”。哈勃拍摄到的是鹰星云——距地球6500光年巨蛇座的一片恒星云。类似大烟囱的形状是巨大的星际尘埃,被附近恒星散发的高能量引力风吹成柱状。(右上角的黑色是被哈勃的一个镜头挡到。)生命之柱的科学意义在于其次,这种奇怪、巨大的形状——生命之柱高达5光年,300亿英里——令人敬畏、恐惧、谦卑。一张照片带来了一千场天文研讨论永远无法达成的结果。

第一张手机照片
菲力佩•卡恩
1997年


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无聊感可以算是一股强大的创新驱动力。1997年,菲力佩•卡恩被困在北卡罗来纳州的产科病房,无所事事。这位软件专家被看护新出生女儿的妻子索菲赶到房间外面来,于是卡恩开始琢磨有没有技术手段可以即时分享图片。他简单设计了一个设备,可以把他新出生女儿的照片即时发给朋友和家人。就像所有的新发明一样,原始的产品相当粗糙:一个数码相机连接到他的翻盖手机上,他在笔记本电脑上写了几行代码使其同步。但最终的结果改变了世界,卡恩的设备拍摄到女儿的照片,并即时发送给2000多人。

卡恩随后改进了他的发明。2000年,夏普公司用他的技术在日本制造了第一批商用照相手机。几年后,产品进入美国市场,很快普及开来。卡恩的发明永久性地改变了我们沟通、观察、体验世界的方式,为智能手机和Instagram、Snapchat等图片分享应用的出现奠定了基础。如今每天有数亿张图片通过手机分享,其中很大一部分都是婴儿的照片。

99美分
安德烈亚斯•古尔斯基
1999年


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具有讽刺意味的是,一张拍摄廉价商品的照片竟然创下当代摄影作品销售价格最昂贵的记录,但安德烈斯•古尔斯基的“99美分”不仅仅是一场视觉盛宴。这张照片拍摄于洛杉矶的99美分超市,是由多张照片通过数码方式拼接起来的。看似无边际的货架,购物者时隐时现,似乎更像一个印象派绘画作品,而不是当代的摄影作品。这恰恰是古尔斯基的目的。从东京证券交易所到墨西哥城垃圾填埋场,这位德国建筑师和摄影师使用数码技术和独特的拼接手法,把平凡的日常生活变成了艺术。博物馆长彼得•加拉西在2001年纽约现代艺术博物馆古尔斯基作品回顾展的手册上写道:“高尚的艺术与商业,严苛的抽象与自发式的观察,摄影与绘画……对古尔斯基来说,这都是与生俱来的天赋,它们并不矛盾,可以和谐共存。”用独特视角审视人造的平凡,这种能力让现代摄影进入了世界级艺术的殿堂。2006年,在金融危机出现之前,“99美分”在一次拍卖会上以230万美元的价格售出。当代摄影作品的最高价格被刷新了。但更重要的是,当代摄影作品从此被送入高级别拍卖品清单,与古代大师的绘画的雕刻作品并肩而立。

河马冲浪
迈克尔•尼科尔斯
2000年


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70亿人口占据了很大一块地盘,这就是为什么全世界的荒野——真正的、未开发的荒野——正在迅速缩小的原因。即使在非洲,虽然狮子和大象依然在徜徉,但野生动物的生存空间被不断挤压。迈克尔•尼科尔斯的摄影作品因此表象出与众不同的效果。尼科尔斯和国家地理学会探险家迈克尔•费采取了一项大胆的行动,他们从中非的刚果跋涉2000英里来到大陆西端的加蓬。在这个过程中,尼科尔斯拍摄到一张令人震惊的照片——河马在大西洋里游泳。很少人见到这样的场景,尽管河马一生都在和水打交道,但它们的栖息地主要还是在内陆的河流和沼泽附近,而不是深海。

照片构图精妙,河马的眼睛和鼻孔露在大海波涛翻滚的水面上。但它的影响不仅仅是美学上的。加蓬总统奥马•邦戈看过尼科尔斯的照片之后,建立了国家公园制度。目前加蓬国家公园占据了这个国家11%的国土面积,确保野生动物有自己的一块领地。


原文:

Untitled (Cowboy)
Richard Prince
1989

The idea for the project that would challenge everything sacred about ownership in photography came to Richard Prince when he was working in the tear-sheet department at Time Inc. While he deconstructed the ­pages of magazines for the archives, Prince’s attention was drawn to the ads that appeared alongside articles. One ad in particular caught his eye: the macho image of the Marlboro Man riding a horse under blue skies. And so, in a process he came to call ­rephotography, Prince took pictures of the ads and cropped out the type, leaving only the iconic cowboy and his surroundings. That Prince didn’t take the original picture meant little to collectors. In 2005 Untitled (­Cowboy) sold for $1.2 million at auction, then the highest publicly recorded price for the sale of a contemporary ­photograph.

Others were less enthusiastic. Prince was sued by a photographer for using copyrighted images, but the courts ruled largely in Prince’s favor. That wasn’t his only victory. Prince’s rephotography helped to create a new art form—photography of photography—that foreshadowed the era of digital sharing and upended our understanding of a photo’s authenticity and ownership.

The Face of AIDS
Therese Frare
1990

David Kirby died surrounded by his family. But Therese Frare’s photograph of the 32-year-old man on his deathbed did more than just capture the heartbreaking moment. It humanized AIDS, the disease that killed Kirby, at a time when it was ravaging victims largely out of public view. Frare’s photograph, published in LIFE in 1990, showed how the widely misunderstood disease devastated more than just its victims. It would be another year before the red ribbon became a symbol of compassion and resilience, and three years before President Bill Clinton created a White House Office of National AIDS Policy. In 1992 the clothing company Benetton used a colorized version of Frare’s photograph in a series of provocative ads. Many magazines refused to run it, and a range of groups called for a boycott. But Kirby’s family consented to its use, believing that the ad helped raise critical awareness about AIDS at a moment when the disease was still uncontrolled and sufferers were lobbying the federal government to speed the development of new drugs. “We just felt it was time that people saw the truth about AIDS,” Kirby’s mother Kay said. Thanks to Frare’s image, they did.

Demi Moore
Annie Leibovitz
1991

The Hollywood star Demi Moore was seven months pregnant with her second child when she graced the cover of Vanity Fair in nothing but her birthday suit. Such a display was not unusual for Moore, who had the birth of her first child recorded with three video cameras. But it was unprecedented for a mainstream media outlet. Portraitist Annie Leibovitz made an image that celebrated pregnancy as much as it titillated, showing how maternity could be not only empowering but also sexy. The magazine’s editor, Tina Brown, deemed Moore’s act a brave declaration, “a new young movie star willing to say, ‘I look beautiful pregnant,’ and not ashamed of it.” The photo was the first mass-media picture to sexualize pregnancy, and many found it too shocking for the newsstand. Some grocery chains refused to stock the issue, while others covered it up like pornography. It was not, of course. But it was a provocative magazine cover, and it did what only the best covers can: change the culture. Once pregnancy was a relatively private affair, even for public figures. After Leibovitz’s picture, celebrity births, naked maternity shots and paparazzi snaps of baby bumps have become industries unto themselves.

Bosnia
Ron Haviv
1992

It can take time for even the most shocking ­images to have an effect. The war in Bosnia had not yet begun when American Ron Haviv took this picture of a Serb kicking a Muslim woman who had been shot by Serb forces. Haviv had gained access to the Tigers, a brutal nationalist militia that had warned him not to photograph any killings. But Haviv was determined to document the cruelty he was witnessing and, in a split second, decided to risk it. TIME published the photo a week later, and the image of casual hatred ignited broad debate over the international response to the worsening conflict. Still, the war continued for more than three years, and ­Haviv—who was put on a hit list by the Tigers’ leader, Zeljko Raznatovic, or ­Arkan—was frustrated by the tepid reaction. Almost 100,000 people lost their lives. Before his assassination in 2000, Arkan was indicted for crimes against humanity. Haviv’s image was used as evidence against him and other perpetrators of what became known as ethnic cleansing.

Famine in Somalia
James Nachtwey
1992

James Nachtwey couldn’t get an assignment in 1992 to document the spiraling famine in Somalia. Mogadishu had become engulfed in armed conflict as food prices soared and international assistance failed to keep pace. Yet few in the West took much notice, so the American photographer went on his own to Somalia, where he received support from the International Committee of the Red Cross. Nachtwey brought back a cache of haunting images, including this scene of a woman waiting to be taken to a feeding center in a wheelbarrow. After it was published as part of a cover feature in the New York Times Magazine, one reader wrote, “Dare we say that it doesn’t get any worse than this?” The world was similarly moved. The Red Cross said public support resulted in what was then its largest operation since World War II. One and a half million people were saved, the ICRC’s Jean-Daniel Tauxe told the Times, and “James’ pictures made the difference.”

Starving Child and Vulture
Kevin Carter
1993

Kevin Carter knew the stench of death. As a member of the Bang-Bang Club, a quartet of brave photographers who chronicled apartheid-­era South Africa, he had seen more than his share of heartbreak. In 1993 he flew to Sudan to photograph the famine racking that land. Exhausted after a day of taking pictures in the village of Ayod, he headed out into the open bush. There he heard whimpering and came across an emaciated toddler who had collapsed on the way to a feeding center. As he took the child’s picture, a plump vulture landed nearby. Carter had reportedly been advised not to touch the victims because of disease, so instead of helping, he spent 20 minutes waiting in the hope that the stalking bird would open its wings. It did not. Carter scared the creature away and watched as the child continued toward the center. He then lit a cigarette, talked to God and wept. The New York Times ran the photo, and readers were eager to find out what happened to the child—and to criticize Carter for not coming to his subject’s aid. His image quickly became a wrenching case study in the debate over when photographers should intervene. Subsequent research seemed to reveal that the child did survive yet died 14 years later from malarial fever. Carter won a Pulitzer for his image, but the darkness of that bright day never lifted from him. In July 1994 he took his own life, writing, “I am haunted by the vivid memories of killings & corpses & anger & pain.”

Pillars of Creation
NASA
1995

The Hubble Space Telescope almost didn’t make it. Carried aloft in 1990 aboard the space shuttle ­Atlantis, it was over-budget, years behind schedule and, when it finally reached orbit, nearsighted, its 8-foot mirror distorted as a result of a manufacturing flaw. It would not be until 1993 that a repair mission would bring Hubble online. Finally, on April 1, 1995, the telescope delivered the goods, capturing an image of the universe so clear and deep that it has come to be known as Pillars of Creation. What Hubble photographed is the Eagle Nebula, a star-forming patch of space 6,500 light-years from Earth in the constellation Serpens Cauda. The great smokestacks are vast clouds of interstellar dust, shaped by the high-energy winds blowing out from nearby stars (the black portion in the top right is from the magnification of one of Hubble’s four cameras). But the science of the pillars has been the lesser part of their significance. Both the oddness and the enormousness of the formation—the pillars are 5 light-years, or 30 trillion miles, long—awed, thrilled and humbled in equal measure. One image achieved what a thousand astronomy symposia never could.

First Cell-Phone Picture
Philippe Kahn
1997

Boredom can be a powerful incentive. In 1997, Philippe Kahn was stuck in a Northern California maternity ward with nothing to do. The software entrepreneur had been shooed away by his wife while she birthed their daughter, Sophie. So Kahn, who had been tinkering with technologies that share images instantly, jerry-built a device that could send a photo of his newborn to friends and family—in real time. Like any invention, the setup was crude: a digital camera connected to his flip-top cell phone, synched by a few lines of code he’d written on his laptop in the hospital. But the effect has transformed the world: Kahn’s device captured his daughter’s first moments and transmitted them instantly to more than 2,000 people.

Kahn soon refined his ad hoc prototype, and in 2000 Sharp used his technology to release the first commercially available integrated camera phone, in Japan. The phones were introduced to the U.S. market a few years later and soon became ubiquitous. Kahn’s invention forever altered how we communicate, perceive and experience the world and laid the groundwork for smartphones and photo-sharing applications like Instagram and Snapchat. Phones are now used to send hundreds of millions of images around the world every day—including a fair number of baby pictures.

99 Cent
Andreas Gursky
1999

It may seem ironic that a photograph of cheap goods would set a record for the most expensive contemporary photograph ever sold, but Andreas Gursky’s 99 Cent is far more than a visual inventory. In a single large-scale image digitally stitched together from multiple images taken in a 99 Cents Only store in Los Angeles, the seemingly endless rows of stuff, with shoppers’ heads floating ­anonymously above the merchandise, more closely resemble abstract or Impressionist painting than contemporary photography. Which was precisely Gursky’s point. From the Tokyo stock exchange to a Mexico City landfill, the German architect and photographer uses digital manipulation and a distinct sense of composition to turn everyday experiences into art. As the ­curator Peter Galassi wrote in the catalog for a 2001 retrospective of Gursky’s work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, “High art versus commerce, conceptual rigor versus spontaneous observation, photography versus painting ... for Gursky they are all givens—not opponents but companions.” That ability to render the man-made and mundane with fresh eyes has helped ­modern photography enter the art world’s elite. In 2006, in the heady days before the Great Recession, 99 Cent sold for $2.3 million at auction. The record for a contemporary photograph has since been surpassed, but the sale did more than any other to catapult modern photography into the pages of auction catalogs alongside the oil paintings and marble sculptures by old masters.

Surfing Hippos
Michael Nichols
2000

Seven billion human beings take up a certain amount of space, which is one reason why wilderness—true, untouched wilderness—is fast dwindling around the world. Even in Africa, where lions and elephants still roam, the space for wild animals is shrinking. That’s what makes Michael Nichols’ photograph so special. Nichols and the National Geographic Society explorer Michael Fay undertook an arduous 2,000-mile trek from the Congo in central Africa to Gabon on the continent’s west coast. That was where Nichols captured a photograph of something astonishing—­hippopotamuses swimming in the midnight blue Atlantic Ocean. It was an event few had seen before—while hippos spend most of their time in water, their habitat is more likely to be an inland river or swamp than the crashing sea.

The photograph itself is reliably beautiful, the eyes and snout of the hippo peeking just above the rippling ocean surface. But its effect was more than aesthetic. Gabon President Omar Bongo was inspired by ­Nichols’ pictures to create a system of national parks that now cover 11 percent of the country, ensuring that there will be at least some space left for the wild.


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